STRESS IN RABBITS
The term stress is usually used to describe a situation in which environmental conditions are having an adverse effect on an individual. Stress is a state, the environmental factors that lead to stress are stressors and the individuals under stress show stress responses.There are many factors that influence the response of an individual to stress; these include previous experience and/or familiarity of the stressor, genetic predisposition and individual vulnerability.
Stressful situations are usually associated with a lack of control and can be particularly severe if the individual is unable to predict events. The most stressful situations are often those that would be most diligently avoided in the wild.
Stressors can be categorised as emotional or physical.
Examples of stressors that may affect rabbits:
• Novelty - examples include the first trip in a car, the first visit to a show, handling by a stranger
• Fear inducing stimuli - examples include sudden noises, other animals or poor handling
• Social stress - examples include a lack of social contact or interactions with many individuals in a limited space
• Inability to perform normal behaviour patterns - examples include a lack of social contact, exercise or an inability to retreat from a stressor
• Pain, discomfort or illness
• Anticipation of pain or discomfort - examples include poor or excessive handling
• Inability to control environmental factors - examples includes poor ventilation, temperatures at shows, travelling in a car on a hot day, and poorly lit shed
• Lack of space - examples include hutches and show pens
• Withdrawal of food or water
Behaviour pattern occurring in response to various stressors:
• Fear related behaviour - As a prey species, rabbits are likely to freeze when a fear-inducing stimulus is encountered. This may be associated with a decrease in heart rate and an increase in rapid breathing. If they have space, rabbits will also try to hide or flee from the stressor. If there appears little option they will use aggression. Occasionally displacement activities are used to deal with stress - for example chewing of novel items
• Anxiety related behaviour - anxiety lasts longer than fear and is usually associated with anticipation of an event or interaction. Behavioural signs include jumpiness, frequent urination and defecation
• Behaviour pattern due to frustration - barren environments are associated with abnormal behaviour patterns such as excessive destruction, over-grooming and self directed aggression
• Behaviour patters due to position in social order - where rabbits are living in groups but have limited space and reduced access to food and water certain animals may become the target of aggression from other individuals
• Separation behaviour - female rabbits and youngsters may display an increase in apathy and a decrease in social behaviours associated with the suddenness of weaning
• Apathy of depressed behaviour - rabbits in barren environments with no social contact can appear relatively unresponsive or lethargic.